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Russia's Arctic Trefoil base located on the island of Alexandra Land – the westernmost major island of the Franz Josef Archipelago.

圖解:俄羅斯的“北極三葉草”基地,坐落于法蘭士約瑟夫地群島最西端的主島亞歷山大地島上。

Russia has widely expanded its control over its Arctic territories, Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu said. He added that the unique infrastructure Russia has built in the Polar region is unmatched by any other country.

俄國國防部長謝爾蓋·紹伊古說,俄國已經廣泛擴展了對其北極領土的控制。他還補充說,俄羅斯在極地建設的基礎設施是獨一無二的,其他任何國家都無法比擬。

“Throughout the history of Arctic exploration and reclamation, no other country has built so many [infrastructure] obxts equipped with such technology and possessing such levels of capacity in the fields of power saving, as well as military capabilities,” Shoigu said, addressing a plenary session of the Public Council of the Russian Defense Ministry on Monday.

“在勘探和開墾北極的整個歷史中,沒有其他國家建造過這么多裝備有如此技術的(基礎設施)目標,掌握過如此高水平的節能能力以及軍事能力”,紹伊古在周一的俄羅斯國防部公共委員會全體會議上發表講話時說。



The minister went on to say that major construction projects in the Arctic are “almost finished,” and that alongside Russia’s western regions, the Arctic would remain a priority area for military infrastructure development in the future.

部長接著說道,那些在北極的重大建設項目“幾乎已完成”,并且和俄羅斯的西部地區一樣,北極仍會是未來軍事基礎設施發展的優先地區。

The Russian Defense Ministry has described its construction efforts in the Arctic as “unprecedented.” According to the ministry’s website, the military have built as many as 425 infrastructure obxts in the Polar region, with a total area as vast as 700,000 square meters. The existing bases already host as many as 1,000 servicemen alongside special weapon systems and military equipment.

俄羅斯國防部將其在北極的建設成就描述為“史無前例的”。據這個部門網站的描述,軍方已在極地地區建造了425個基礎設施目標,總面積達70萬平方米。目前基地已已經容納了1000名軍人,連同特種武器系統和軍事裝備。

Russia has four fully functioning military bases in its Polar regions. One has been built on the island of Alexandra Land – the westernmost major island of the Franz Josef Archipelago, another on Wrangel Island in Russia’s Far East and two more on the New Siberian Islands Archipelago. The military are also completing the construction of an airfield on the Franz Josef Archipelago, said to be capable of accommodating airplanes all year round by 2020.

俄羅斯在其極地地區擁有四個功能完備的軍事基地。其中一個建在法蘭士約瑟夫地群島最西端的主島亞歷山大地島上,另一個在俄羅斯遠東的弗蘭格爾島上,其余兩個位于新西伯利亞群島。軍方也在法蘭士約瑟夫地群島上完成了機場的建設,據說在2020年前能做到全年容納飛機。

Of particular interest is Russia’s northernmost military base, called Arctic Trefoil. The unique base is the world’s only permanent infrastructure facility built in the area located 80 degrees of latitude north of the Equator.

外界尤感興趣的是俄羅斯最北端叫做“北極三葉草”的軍事基地。這個獨一無二的基地是世界上建于赤道以北緯度80度地區的永久性基礎設施。



Russian President Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev visit Acrtic Trefoil base located on Alexandra Land island in Franz Josef Land, northwest Russia, on March 29, 2017

圖解:2017年3月29日,總統普京和總理梅德韋杰夫訪問北極三葉草基地

The autonomous complex, which occupies an area of 14,000 square meters, allows up to 100 people to live and work there for as long as a year and a half without any external support. The base has its own power station as well as a water purification plant capable of producing drinking quality water out of snow.

這個獨立自給的綜合結構占地1萬4千平方米,能容許多達100人在那里生活和工作長達一年半而無需外界補給。該基地有自己的發電站和水凈化設備,能夠利用雪產出可飲用的水。

Brand new heat-saving technologies were used in its construction. The base also has a number of recreational facilities for its personnel, including a cinema, a fitness center, billiard room and tennis court, as well as a greenhouse with living evergreen plants. All buildings at the base are connected by heated galleries.

建設采用了全新的蓄熱技術?;匾矠槠淙藛T配備了一些消遣設施,包括影院,健身中心,桌球室和網球場,也有個溫室種有活的常綠植物?;刂械乃薪ㄖg都連通了加熱廊道。

The Russian military also plan to equip the troops stationed in the Polar regions with new weapons specially designed to withstand extremely low temperatures. In 2018, the Russian military plan to deploy the new Tor-M2DT anti-aircraft weapon systems to the Arctic, Lieutenant General Aleksandr Leonov, who is in command of the tactical air defense units within the Russian Armed Forces, told the Russian media.

俄羅斯武裝力量中的戰術防空部隊指揮官亞歷山大·列昂諾夫中將告訴俄媒說,俄羅斯軍方還計劃為駐扎在極地地區的部隊配備經過特別設計用來承受極端低溫的新式武器。俄羅斯軍方計劃在2018年把新的Tor-M2DT防空武器系統部署到北極。

A standard version of this anti-aircraft system can hit its targets at a distance up to 15 kilometers and a height of up to 10 kilometers and could remain functional at temperatures ranging from 50 degrees above zero to 50 degrees below zero. Recently, Russian engineers have developed a new version that can operate under even harsher conditions.

這款防空系統的標準版本能夠擊中距離達15公里,高度達10公里的目標,并能在氣溫零上50度至零下50度的范圍內保持工作。最近,俄國工程師們已發展出一種能在更嚴酷條件下運轉的新版本。

The Arctic remains a strategically important region for Russia both in terms of economic development and providing national security, military and political analysts told RT. “Up to 40 percent of rare earth materials, as well as some 30 percent of gas and oil reserves, are located [in the Arctic regions],” said Viktor Litovkin, a military observer at the TASS and RIA news agencies.

軍事和政治分析師們告訴今日俄羅斯電視臺說,無論是在經濟發展還是提供國家安全方面,北極對俄羅斯來說都是具有戰略重要性的地區?!案哌_40%的稀土材料以及約30%的石油天然氣儲藏位于北極地區”,塔斯社和俄新社的軍事觀察員維克托·利托夫金說。

The region also provides one of the most efficient sea trade routes between Europe and Asia, which allows ships to reach their destinations twice as fast as traditional sea routes. Russia has to provide “navigation, ice breakers and radio installations for this Northern Sea Route,” Litovkin explained, adding that Moscow needs to maintain its presence in the region to make this all possible.

這個地區也提供了一條效率最高的歐亞間海上貿易航路,它能使船只以比傳統航路快兩倍的速度抵達目的地。利托夫金解釋道,俄羅斯必須“為這條北海航道提供導航,破冰船和無線電設備”,并補充說,為使這一切成為可能,莫斯科需要保持在該地區的存在。



The Northern Sea Route is a “trade route of the future,” Andrey Koshkin, the head of the chair of sociology and political sciences at the Russian Plekhanov University of Economics, told RT, adding that many countries, including China, are increasingly taking an interest in using this route in their international trade.

俄羅斯普列漢諾夫經濟大學社會和政治學系主任安德烈·柯西金告訴今日俄羅斯電視臺說,北海航道是一條“未來的貿易航路”,并補充說,包括中國在內的許多國家在國際貿易中使用這條航路的興趣與日俱增。

The Polar regions also have strategic security importance for Russia as foreign military vessels, including submarines, armed with missiles could potentially threaten key Russian military and civilian infrastructure, particularly in Siberia, in case they get free access to the Arctic Ocean waterways near Russia’s northern borders, Litovkin said. “Russia has everything to protect its Arctic territories from any foreign infiltration,” he added.

利托夫金說,北極地區對俄羅斯也具備戰略安全上的重要性,因為裝備了導彈的外國軍艦包括潛艇,萬一能夠自由進入靠近俄國北部邊界的北冰洋水道,便能潛在威脅重要的俄軍事和民用設施,尤其在西伯利亞。他補充說,“俄羅斯對于保護她的北極領土免遭外國滲透有著萬全準備?!?br />