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China to Build a Gigawatt Power Station in Space

中國將在太空中建造10億瓦特的發電站

Dr Jody Muelaner posted on June 28, 2019 |
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Space-based solar power technically has the potential to provide near limitless renewable energy and to direct it almost instantly to where it is needed at any given time. The space-based solar concept involves power being generated by an orbiting solar power station. This could use either photovoltaic panels or a concentrated solar plant that focuses the sun onto a boiler to drive a steam turbine. The power would then be beamed to receiving stations on earth using microwaves or laser beams. The receiving stations would be connected to local power distribution grids. A network of satellites could beam energy anywhere on Earth, directing power where it is needed.

從技術角度講,空間太陽能具有提供近乎無限可再生能源的潛力,并可隨時將能源傳送至所需要的地方去??臻g太陽能概念是指將太陽能電站發送至空間軌道上。通過光伏電池板將光能轉換為電能并集中暫存到儲能器當中,然后以微波或激光的形式將能量傳送至地球接收站上。通過接收站將電能連接至當地電網中。一個空間太陽能電站可以將能量傳送到地球上的任何地方,將能量輸送到任何所需的地方。

The problem is that the cost of building space-based solar power stations has been estimated to be 1,000s of times more than the cost of current earth-based renewable power installations. The main reason for the high cost is that a commercial power station weights 1,000s of tons. It either has to be launched into orbit or the materials have to be mined in space, with the materials processing and all manufacturing carried out in orbit. Until recently, this has all looked ridiculously expensive compared to just building a solar array on the land. However, with companies like SpaceX rapidly bringing down launch costs and developments in lightweight photovoltaics, space-based solar is starting to look more feasible.

但問題是,建造空間太陽能發電站的成本是目前在地球上建造可再生能源電廠的1000多倍。成本高的主要原因是,一個商業發電站的重量為1000噸。它要么必須發射到軌道上,要么必須在太空中建造,比如在太空中開采材料,材料加工制造等。直到最近,與剛剛可以在陸地上建造太陽能電池板相比,這一切看起來都貴得離譜。然而,隨著SpaceX等公司運載火箭發射成本的迅速降低,以及輕光伏發電的發展,空間太陽能電站的建設正變得可行。



The first technical paper describing how we might achieve space-based solar power was published by Peter Glaser in 1968. Feasibility studies were then carried out by NASA in the 1970s, with a number of technical s setting out what could be achieved. Both photovoltaics and concentrated solar plants were considered, as well as microwave or laser power transmission. The most ambitious proposals involved capturing an asteroid near Earth into Earth’s orbit and mining it to create a massive solar power station. One such asteroid could provide many times more electrical power than all the power stations on Earth.

1968年,彼得·格拉澤發表了第一篇描述我們如何實現空間太陽能的技術論文。1970年,美國國家航空航天局對此進行了可行性研究,并發布了技術報告,
對可實現的目標進行了論述。該報告研究了光電聚能太陽能發電廠,以及微波或激光傳輸系統。最具雄心的設想是,將一顆接近地球的小行星俘獲至地球軌道,并利用它上面的資源建造一個大型太陽能發電站。一個這樣的小行星可以提供比地球上所有發電站之和大很多倍的電力。



NASA illustration from 1977 showing asteroid mining on an Earth-approaching asteroid. (Image courtesy of NASA.)

1977年美國宇航局的示意圖,描繪了在被俘獲小行星上進行采礦的場景。(NASA供圖)

Current Major Players
Japan passed its Basic Space Law in 2008, which makes achieving space-based solar power a national goal. Initially, small demonstration satellites will be launched and then a commercial 1-gigawatt station by 2030. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is developing a number of solar-collecting satellite designs, all intended to be placed in geosynchronous orbit at an altitude of 36,000km. A satellite with a fixed photovoltaic panel would not always be pointing at the sun. JAXA is therefore investigating a concept with multiple mirror satellites focusing sunlight from different directions onto a central photovoltaic satellite. It intends to use a pilot signal from the Earth station to allow the satellite to aim as the receiving station. In 2015, JAXA made an initial demonstration of its microwave transmission technology, sending 1.8 kilowatts over a distance of 55m.

當前主要參與者
2008年日本通過了《空間基本法》,以實現空間太陽能發電作為國家目標。起初他們將一個小型實驗裝置發射至太空,最后將在2030年將建成一個10億瓦的商業電站。日本宇宙航空研究開發機構(JAXA)正在開發一系列太陽能收集衛星的設計,所有這些衛星都將被放置在離地面高36000公里的地球同步軌道上。為此,JAXA正在研究一個概念,即利用多個鏡面衛星將來自四面八方的光折射匯集到一個中央光電轉換衛星上。通過地面控制將該衛星指向目標接收站。2015年,JAXA首次展示該微波傳輸技術,并在55米的距離內傳送了1.8千瓦的微波能。

A number of different groups are working on space-based solar in the U.S. The U.S. Naval Research Lab (NRL) is researching modular solar and transmitter units for space deployment but have no plans for a full-scale demonstration. Caltech is also developing an ultralight module able to collect solar power and wirelessly transmit it. This is currently less than 1kg/m2 and incorporates beam steering. Solaren is a California-based startup that plans to launch a 200 megawatt space based power station in the mid-2020s.

在美國,眾多不同組織正在從事空間太陽能研究。美國海軍研究實驗室(NRL)正在研究可通過發射并可在太空中部署的太陽能單元模塊,但沒有全面演示的計劃。加州理工學院也在開發一種超輕,能夠收集太陽能并進行無線傳輸的模塊。目前這種包括波束轉向的模塊,重量已降至小于每平方一公斤。Solaren是一家位于加州的初創公司,計劃在2020年代中期建造一座200兆瓦的太空發電站。

China’s Roadmap to Commercial Space Based Solar

中國商用空間太陽能發展藍圖



Finally, a gigawatt commercial space based solar power station would be launched by 2050, supplying power to earth and beaming it to spacecraft for deep-space exploration.

——以下為后續新聞——

China to build space-based solar power station by 2035
by Staff WritersXiamen, China (XNA) Dec 03, 2019

stock illustration only
China plans to accomplish a 200-tonne megawatt-level space-based solar power station by 2035, according to the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).
The space-based solar power station would capture the sun''''s energy that never makes it to the planet, said Wang Li, a CAST research fellow with the program, when attending the sixth China-Russia Engineering Forum held last week in Xiamen, southeast China''''s Fujian Province.
The energy is converted to microwaves or lasers and then beamed wirelessly back to the Earth''''s surface for human consumption, Wang said.

根據中國空間技術研究院(CAST)的數據,中國計劃到2035年建成一個200噸兆瓦級的空間太陽能發電站。
上周在中國東南部福建省廈門市舉行的第六屆中俄工程論壇上,中國科協項目研究員王力(音譯)表示,天基太陽能電站將捕獲那些永遠不會到達地球的太陽能。
能量被轉換成微波或激光,然后通過無線電波傳回地球表面供人們使用,王說。

"We hope to strengthen international cooperation and make scientific and technological breakthroughs so that humankind can achieve the dream of limitless clean energy at an early date," Wang said.

王說:“我們希望通過加強國際合作,實現科技突破,讓人類早日使用到永不枯竭的清潔能源?!?br />
Compared with traditional fossil energy, which has been increasingly exhausted and is responsible for severe environmental issues, space-based solar power is more efficient and sustainable, providing a reliable power supply solution for satellites and disaster-hit areas or isolated areas on the Earth, Wang said.

王說,與日漸枯竭并導致出現嚴重環境問題的傳統化石能源相比,天基太陽能更高效和可持續,為其他衛星、地球上的災區,或偏遠地區提供了可靠的電力供應解決方案。



Researches in this field will spur the country''''s space science and innovation in emerging industries like commercial space transportations, Wang said.

王說,這一領域的研究將促進國家的空間科學和新興產業的創新,如商業太空運輸。

"The power would then be beamed to receiving stations on earth using microwaves or laser beams."
One micro meteor impact and the beam shifts...

然后,能量將通過微波或激光束發送到地球上的接收站?!?br /> 不過一旦受到一顆很小的流星撞擊,光束傳輸方向就會發生改變……