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Taal: The ''very small but dangerous volcano''

菲律賓的塔阿爾火山:一座很小但是很危險的火山



Taal is one of the Philippines'' most active volcanoes.

塔阿爾火山是菲律賓的一座活火山。

Over the past few days, it''s begun spewing lava, triggering earthquakes and emitting huge plumes of ash that have spread across the island of Luzon and beyond.

在過去的幾天內,這座火山開始噴出巖漿,這引發了地震,導致了大量的火山灰的彌漫,這些火山灰籠罩了呂宋島和其它周圍的地區。

Scientists fear a bigger "hazardous eruption" is imminent.

科學家們擔心這座火山很快要發生更大的災難性的噴發了。



Volcano Island alone has 47 craters and 4 maars - volcanic craters that form when hot magma comes into contact with shallow ground water, producing a violent steam explosion. Other vents and eruption points are underneath Lake Taal.

這座火山島有47個主火山口和4個低平火山口,當巖漿和淺層地下水接觸后,會產生猛烈的水蒸氣爆炸。低平火山口則位于湖水之下。

The entire Volcano Island has been marked as a permanent danger zone by Phivolcs.

整座火山島已經被菲律賓火山與地震學研究所列為永久危險區域。

It''s unpredictable

這座火山的噴發是不可預測的

At least 35 eruptions have been reported within the last few hundred years - the most recent was in 1977.

在過去的幾百年間,這座火山至少被記錄到了有過35次噴發。最近一次噴發發生在1977年。

A "very violent" eruption in 1911 from the main crater caused rock particles and fragments to shoot out of the volcano, according to news outlet Rappler. That event killed more than 1,300 people.

一次“非常猛烈”的噴發發生在1911年,當時這座火山的主火山口噴出了巖石顆粒和碎片。那次噴發事件造成了超過1300人的死亡。

US-based volcanologist Jess Phoenix says Taal has "a history of multiple eruption styles", so it creates threats on the ground in the form of lava and in the air through ash.

美國的一位火山學家杰斯.菲尼克斯說:“塔阿爾火山在歷史上有很多種噴發形式。它所噴發出的巖漿會侵蝕大地,而噴發出的火山灰會彌漫在空氣中?!?br />


There''s also the risk of a "volcanic tsunami", she adds, which can be trigged by falling debris after an eruption generating waves in the lake.

她說:“這座火山的噴發還可能因為其噴出的物質導致湖水掀起大浪從而引發海嘯?!?br />
"Any of these types of threats would be a major hazard for people nearby," says Ms Phoenix.

菲尼克斯女士說:“任何形式的噴發都會對附近的居民造成巨大的威脅?!?br />
The lake is also "potentially dangerous", as water could interact with the magma, making it "more explosive", said Mr Kennedy.

肯尼迪先生表示:這座湖也有“潛在的危險性”,因為湖水會和巖漿相互作用,可能隨時會發生更大的爆炸。

"If water gets to the exploding lava surface it flashes to steam and rapidly solidifies the lava it interacts with, making a very fine ash that explodes higher into the atmosphere and can travel further," he told the BBC.

他對BBC說:“如果湖水接觸到了爆炸的巖漿,它會很快被汽化,然后讓它所接觸到的巖漿快速凝固。最終這些凝固的巖漿會以火山灰的形式劇烈噴出,噴到更高的大氣中,飄到更遠的地方?!?br />
It''s close to lots of people

這座火山附近有太多人居住

One of the main reasons people are worried is Taal''s proximity to millions of people.

人們的其中一個擔心在于塔阿爾火山的附近生活著成百上千萬人。



"Metro Manila is a few tens of kilometres away with a population of over 10 million, and there are multiple cities within 30km that have more than 100,000 people in each, not counting the smaller towns in between," James White, head of geology at the University of Otago, told the BBC.

奧塔哥大學的地質系主任詹姆斯.懷特對BBC說:“馬尼拉大都會離這座火山只有幾十公里的距離,那里生活著1000多萬人,在火山附近還有好幾座城市的人口超過了10萬人,這還沒有包括那些更小的城市?!?br />
The UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) says that more than 450,000 people are estimated to live within the newly designated 14km danger zone.

聯合國人道主義事務協調辦公室方面表示:據估計有大約超過45萬人生活在新劃定的半徑14公里的危險區域內。



Mr White said a 500m tall fountain would mean "a lot of magma being erupted".

懷特先生說:“巖漿噴出的高度高達500米,這意味著這次噴發噴出的巖漿非常多?!?br />
Heavy ash from Taal continues to fall on nearby municipalities and a total of 212 volcanic earthquakes have taken place so far.

塔阿爾火山噴出的厚厚的火山灰現在持續落到了鄰近的市鎮,截至目前,這場噴發總共造成了212次火山地震的發生。

"The seismic activity seems to indicate that there is more magma under the volcano and the eruption may continue," said Mr Kennedy. "However volcanoes can just as easily quiet down as become more explosive."

肯尼迪先生說:“發生的地震活動說明了在火山下有更多的巖漿在翻涌,這場噴發可能會持續下去。然而,火山也有可能會很快平靜下來,但隨后可能會變得更加活躍?!?br />
Earthquakes and volcanic activity are not uncommon in the Philippines, which lies along the Ring of Fire - a zone of major seismic activity, which has one of the world''s most active fault lines.

地震和火山活動在菲律賓并不罕見,菲律賓位于被稱作“火圈”的環太平洋火山地震帶上,這條地震帶是世界上火山活動最活躍的斷層之一。